Inequality of opportunity in higher education in the Middle East and North Africa
Caroline Krafft, Halimat Alawode, St. Catherine University, United States
International Journal of Educational Development Volume 62, Number 1, ISSN 0738-0593 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Struggles with inequality have been prominent in the Middle East and North Africa in the aftermath of the Arab Spring. This paper examines the extent and drivers of inequality of opportunity in attaining higher education in Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia. We find that inequality is similarly high in Egypt and Tunisia, but moderate in Jordan. Background characteristics affect attainment even after accounting for test scores, which are themselves influenced by background. Particularly in Egypt and Tunisia, where higher education is free of charge, public spending on higher education is regressive. Thus, a theoretically meritocratic and equitable system perpetuates inequality.
Krafft, C. & Alawode, H. (2018). Inequality of opportunity in higher education in the Middle East and North Africa. International Journal of Educational Development, 62(1), 234-244. Elsevier Ltd.