Is free basic education in Egypt a reality or a myth?
Ragui Assaad, Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, United States ; Caroline Krafft, Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, United States
International Journal of Educational Development Volume 45, Number 1, ISSN 0738-0593 Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Egypt has made enormous progress in increasing access to education. While school is theoretically free, families must often spend substantial sums in order for their children to succeed in school. The question that this paper investigates is whether students can succeed in Egypt's basic education system, regardless of their family circumstances, and without additional spending. The paper begins by examining inequality in completing basic education and then investigates the use of supplements, such as private tutoring. Outcomes are examined by socio-economic status, to illustrate how the need to supplement publicly provided basic education contributes to unequal opportunities for young Egyptians.
Assaad, R. & Krafft, C. (2015). Is free basic education in Egypt a reality or a myth?. International Journal of Educational Development, 45(1), 16-30. Elsevier Ltd.