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The Shallows and the Depths. Cognitive and Social Presence in Blended Tutoring

Technology, Pedagogy and Education Volume 27, Number 2, ISSN 1475-939X


The article investigates a system of academic education called tutoring implemented in a blended format. It looks at this teaching and learning experience based on the results of a student satisfaction survey (N = 9) as well as the analysis of the discourse between the tutor and six tutees recorded during four meetings: two traditional and two cloud tutorials. It is argued here that the blended format is a good solution which enables the two modes to reinforce each other and compensate for each other's deficiencies. By offering more interaction and establishing good rapport, the face-to-face meetings develop social presence. In turn, cognitive presence is stronger in the online tutorials, in which the students appear to have reached higher levels of critical thinking. What is more, these two types of tutorials appear to pave the way for each other.


Turula, A. (2018). The Shallows and the Depths. Cognitive and Social Presence in Blended Tutoring. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 27(2), 233-250. Retrieved May 28, 2020 from .

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