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Creating a Team Tutor Using GIFT

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IJAIE Volume 28, Number 2, ISSN 1560-4292


With the movement in education towards collaborative learning, it is becoming more important that learners be able to work together in groups and teams. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have been used successfully to teach individuals, but so far only a few ITSs have been used for the purpose of training teams. This is due to the difficulty of creating such systems. An ITS for teams must be able to assess complex interactions between team members (team skills) as well as the way they interact with the system itself (task skills). Assessing team skills can be difficult because they contain social components such as communication and coordination that are not readily quantifiable. This article addresses these difficulties by developing a framework to guide the authoring process for team tutors. The framework is demonstrated using a case study about a particular team tutor that was developed using a military surveillance scenario for teams of two. The Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) software provided the team tutoring infrastructure for this task. A new software architecture required to support the team tutor is described. This theoretical framework and the lessons learned from its implementation offer conceptual scaffolding for future authors of ITSs.


Gilbert, S.B., Slavina, A., Dorneich, M.C., Sinatra, A.M., Bonner, D., Johnston, J., Holub, J., MacAllister, A. & Winer, E. (2018). Creating a Team Tutor Using GIFT. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 28(2), 286-313. Retrieved January 22, 2020 from .

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