You are here:

Excellence in Business Education (A "FRUCE" Model for Higher Education Commission-Recognized Business Schools in Pakistan)


American Journal of Business Education Volume 6, Number 3, ISSN 1942-2504


The paper develops a new model of the essential factors required to be a top business school in the world for the benefit of schools recognized by the Higher Education Commission (HEC) in Pakistan. Globally, top business schools are those that excel in research, attract strong faculty, and successfully foster student development. The present research considers these factors in relation to HEC recognition; HEC's stringent criteria are disliked by many educational entrepreneurs, for whom the profit motive can sometimes trump the delivery of high-quality programs, resulting in the awarding of spurious degrees. HEC's criteria are intended to prevent situations like this, which became increasingly common in Pakistan and reduced educational quality. Under HEC recognition, top business schools and programs can once again be recognized. However, many business schools in Pakistan still have unqualified faculty, poor student development, and little or no research output. The present study shows that business schools in Pakistan can only survive if they explicitly or implicitly follow criteria based on the Faculty, Research, Use of Technology, Corporate Office, and Extracurricular Activities (FRUCE) model presented herein. The main motivation for presenting the FRUCE model is to help Pakistani business schools meet international standards. As context, this research also reports on the slow progress of some universities in achieving adequacy in the areas included in the FRUCE model, including not only the areas mentioned above but also administration/governance and advising. The FRUCE model has the ability to address all these areas.


Kolachi, N.A. & Mohammad, J. (2013). Excellence in Business Education (A "FRUCE" Model for Higher Education Commission-Recognized Business Schools in Pakistan). American Journal of Business Education, 6(3), 311-320. Retrieved May 27, 2020 from .

This record was imported from ERIC on November 3, 2015. [Original Record]

ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Copyright for this record is held by the content creator. For more details see ERIC's copyright policy.