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The effect of a specific training program (laser device assisted) for golf putting aim on putting confidence

, University of Virginia, United States

Doctor of Philosophy, University of Virginia . Awarded


This study investigated the effects of a specific golf putting intervention (laser device assisted) on learning to aim a putterhead perpendicular to the target (hole) and how that intervention affected aiming and putting confidence. A multiple baseline across subjects design using staggered baselines was used to test the effects of the intervention on seven right-handed, adult male golfers. Four separate hypotheses were tested using measures of objective putting aim, putting aim confidence, putting performance confidence and overall putting confidence. Replication of positive results over objective measures for this group of participants were mixed, suggesting the intervention was effective for some of the participants over selected measures, but not as effective for others. Results for Hypothesis I showed that four golfers improved in measures of aiming accuracy and/or consistency, two for absolute error (AE), and two for variable error (VE), thus HI was partially supported. Only one golfer improved state putting aim Confidence for Hypothesis 2, which was therefore rejected. Results showed that for Hypothesis 3, no golfer exhibited positive increases in all three measures of trait putting confidence, putting performance confidence, and a pre-post measure of putting confidence, though two golfers did improve in two of the three confidence measures and provided minimal support for the hypothesis. Results for Hypothesis 4 showed that five of the seven golfers improved in the measure of putting performance accuracy either by increasing putting accuracy (reducing absolute error; AE) or by increasing putting consistency (reducing variable error; VE), thereby supporting H4. Social validation questionnaires and open-ended responses taken at the end of the experiment, revealed that the golfers felt that the intervention was beneficial to their feelings of increased confidence, improved their level of overall putting, and increased their ability to aim the putter correctly to their intended target. The golfers also stated that participation in the intervention led to a greater awareness and understanding of the process of putting and helped them become more consistent in putting aim and actual putting performance.


Winters, R.K. The effect of a specific training program (laser device assisted) for golf putting aim on putting confidence. Doctor of Philosophy thesis, University of Virginia. Retrieved March 22, 2023 from .

This record was imported from ProQuest on October 22, 2013. [Original Record]

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